since the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus, as we move to the left on the periodic table, the electrostatic pull between the nucleus and the valence electron shell decreases. as we move down a group (vertical column), the valence shell energy level gets further and further from the nucleus.
answer : one can design an experiment using a liquid and an additive that can be added to the liquid and observe the chemical changes in the reaction species.
one would need a beaker which is filled with a known amount of the liquid in which thermometer is placed to measure the temperature changes; after addition of the additive to the liquid solution one can note down the temperature change and find whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic in nature. by subtracting the initial temperature value with the final temperature one can find the temperature changes.
various combinations of liquid and additive can be used. liquid in this case can be a known quantity of water and additives can be epsom salt or without epsom salt the experiment can be conducted to notice the changes. water and ice, hydrogen peroxide and dry yeast, vinegar and baking soda,etc.
you need to have a picture of the atom that way we can answer it